For this research, I tried to get information from around 2013 or before all of the 2020-2021 cancel culture erased or amended medical fact.
When you read the following information, you can see that most of the medical dialogue is consistent with the FACTS and common sense – Your immune system works – it is a permanent cure. Once your immune system reads the code – the code does not get forgotten or misplaced.
All of this information – you betcha – is simply stuff that I copied and pasted from the INTERWEB – the very machine that the evil one is using to trap you, choke hold you, tempt you into debilitation. Fear, fear, fear – yeah, well, if you just took a few seconds, applied common sense, did you OWN research, you would see the FACTS.
Read this if you’d like, I refuse to read it for you. Satisfy your own curiosity. Rest in TRUTH – and the truth is Christians WIN. Join up here if you are interested – just read JOHN 3:16. Believe and receive.
- resistant to a particular infection or toxin owing to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.”
- they were naturally immune to hepatitis B”(common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
Aspects of our Immune System:
CD4+T Cells: Differentiation and Functions
Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012: 925135.Published online 2012 Mar 14
The principal functions of the immune system are the recognition with subsequent elimination of foreign antigens, formation of immunologic memory, and development of tolerance to self-antigens. The lymphocyte population is mainly made up of the thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-lymphocytes), bone-marrow-derived (B-lymphocytes), and the natural-killer cells (NK cells). T-lymphocytes mediating the cellular immunity, along with B lymphocytes mediating humoral immunity, provide adaptive immunity, which work in close collaboration with the innate immune system. B-lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow itself, while the T-lymphocytes require the thymus to mature, before being deployed to the peripheral lymphoid organs for further antigen-mediated differentiation. A small subset of the CD4+cells, including natural regulatory cells and natural killer T cells (NKT cells), are already distinct differentiated cells on release from the thymus.
CD4+T cells along with CD8+T cells make up the majority of T-lymphocytes. CD4+T cells after being activated and differentiated into distinct effector subtypes play a major role in mediating immune response through the secretion of specific cytokines. The CD4+T cells carry out multiple functions, ranging from activation of the cells of the innate immune system, B-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, as well as nonimmune cells, and also play critical role in the suppression of immune reaction. Continuing studies identified new subsets of CD4+ cells besides the classical T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cells. These include T-helper 17 (Th17), follicular helper T cell (Tfh), induced T-regulatory cells (iTreg), and the regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) as well as the potentially distinct T-helper 9 (Th9). The differentiation of the different lineages depends on the complex network of specific cytokine signaling and transcription factors followed by epigenetic modifications. This paper will be focusing on the cytokine milieu and lineage specific transcription factors required for the differential development of the antigen-activated CD4+T cells, and also will cover a brief overview of the development pathway of mature naïve CD4+T cells, and finally the effector functions of each subtype will be summarized.
Xin Tao, Anlong Xu, in Amphioxus Immunity, 2016
2.4.3 Immunological memory
Immunologic memory is another important characteristic of adaptive immunity. It means that the immune system can remember the antigens that previously activated it and launch a more intense immune reaction when encountering the same antigen a second time (Figure 2.10).
The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Nonliving substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles (such as a splinter) can also be antigens. The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens.
Your body’s cells have proteins that are antigens. These include a group of antigens called HLA antigens. Your immune system learns to see these antigens as normal and usually does not react against them.
Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system with which you were born. It protects you against all antigens. Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body. These barriers form the first line of defense in the immune response. Examples of innate immunity include:
- Cough reflex
- Enzymes in tears and skin oils
- Mucus, which traps bacteria and small particles
- Stomach acid
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the body’s complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).
If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.
Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. There are B and T type lymphocytes.
- B lymphocytes become cells that produce antibodies. Antibodies attach to a specific antigen and make it easier for the immune cells to destroy the antigen.
- T lymphocytes attack antigens directly and help control the immune response. They also release chemicals, known as cytokines, which control the entire immune response.
As lymphocytes develop, they normally learn to tell the difference between your own body tissues and substances that are not normally found in your body. Once B cells and T cells are formed, a few of those cells will multiply and provide “memory” for your immune system. This allows your immune system to respond faster and more efficiently the next time you are exposed to the same antigen. In many cases, it will prevent you from getting sick. For example, a person who has had chickenpox or has been immunized against chickenpox is immune from getting chickenpox again.
Therapeutic potentiation of the immune system by costimulatory Schiff-base-forming drugs
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IMMUNE responses are orchestrated by CD4 T lymphocytes, which receive a cognitive signal when clonally (A group of cells or organisms that are descended from and genetically identical to a single progenitor, such
as a bacterial colony whose members arose from a single original cell.)
distributed receptors are occupied by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) a group of genes that determine histocompatibility antigens, located in humans on Chromosome 6
Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 6, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 6 spans about 171 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 5.5 and 6 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 6 likely contains 1,000 to 1,100 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. These proteins perform a variety of different roles in the body.
– class II-bound peptides on antigen-presenting cells (APCs)1,2. The APCs provide costimulatory signals, through macromolecules such as CD80, that regulate outcomes in terms of T-cell activation or anergy3–6.
n(Biochemistry) a type of lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and has an important role in the
immune response. There are several subclasses: killer T-cells are responsible for killing cells that are infected by a virus; helper T-cells induce other cells (B-lymphocytes) to produce antibodies. Also called: T-cell
We have studied essential complementary chemical events in the form of Schiff base formation between carbonyls and amines that are constitutively expressed on presenting cell and T-cell surfaces7–9 and provide a new target for manipulation of immune responses 10,11. Here we show that small Schiff base-forming molecules can substitute for the physiological donor of carbonyl groups and provide a costimulatory signal to CD4 Th-cells through a mechanism that activates clofilium-sensitive K+ and Na+ transport. One such molecule, tucaresol, enhances CD4 Th1-cell responses, selectively favouring a Thl-type profile of cytokine production. In vivo tucaresol potently enhances CD4 Th-cell priming and CDS cytotoxic T-cell priming to viral antigens, and has substantial therapeutic activity in murine models of disease.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that encode proteins on the cell surface that have an important role in immune response. Their main role is in antigen presentation where MHC molecules display peptide fragments for recognition by appropriate T-cells
- a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood. (common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
White blood cell? OR leucocyte
a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell. There are several types, all amoeboid cells with a nucleus, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. (common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. (common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
each of a number of small swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered and lymphocytes are formed (common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, thymus cell lymphocytes or T cells mature. … The thymus is located in the upper front part of the chest, in the anterior superior mediastinum, behind the sternum, and in front of the heart.
What does the thymus do during early life? Before birth and throughout childhood, the thymus is instrumental in the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes or T cells, a specific type of white blood cell that protects the body from certain threats, including viruses and infections.
At what age does the thymus disappear? Once you reach puberty, the thymus starts to slowly shrink and become replaced by fat. By age 75, the thymus is little more than fatty tissue. Fortunately, the thymus produces all of your T cells by the time you reach puberty
Why is the thymus not needed later in life? As we age our thymus shrinks and is replaced by fatty tissue, losing its essential ability to grow and develop T cells and leaving us susceptible to infections, immune disorders and cancers
a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system. (common Google Search on Google Dictionary)
white blood cell
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. White blood cells are part of the body’s immune system. They help the body fight infection and other diseases. Types of white blood cells are granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/white-blood-cell
If you look at medical information from 2013 – you can see that medical dialogue was consistent with the FACTS – Your immune system works – it is a permanent cure. Once your immune system reads the code – the code does not get forgotten or misplaced.
DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. Replication is an essential process because, whenever a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell.
What makes white blood cells? White blood cells are made in the bone marrow. They are stored in your blood and lymph tissues. Because some white blood cells called neutrophils have a short life less than a day, your bone marrow is always making them.
Red bone marrow contains blood stem cells that can become red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Yellow bone marrow is made mostly of fat and contains stem cells that can become cartilage, fat, or bone cells. Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow.
Both types of bone marrow are enriched with blood vessels and capillaries.
Bone marrow makes more than 220 billion new blood cells every day. Most blood cells in the body develop from cells in the bone marrow.
Bone marrow stem cells
Bone marrow contains two types of stem cells: mesenchymal and hematopoietic.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells traditionally found in the bone marrow. However, mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, peripheral blood, fallopian tube, and fetal liver and lung. Multipotent stem cells, MSCs differentiate to form adipocytes, cartilage, bone, tendons, muscle, and skin. Mesenchymal stem cells are a distinct entity to the mesenchyme, embryonic connective tissue which is derived from the mesoderm and differentiates to form hematopoietic stem cells.
Morphologically, mesenchymal stem cells have long thin cell bodies with a large nucleus. As with other stem cell types, MSCs have a high capacity for self renewal while maintaining multipotency. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells have enormous therapeutic potential for tissue repair. MSCs have been shown to be capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. R&D Systems offers products designed to identify the progression of MSCs into osteogenic, adipogenic, muscular, and chondrogenic lineages. https://www.rndsystems.com/research-area/mesenchymal-stem-cells
Hematopoiesis is the production of all of the cellular components of blood and blood plasma. It occurs within the hematopoietic system, which includes organs and tissues such as the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Simply, hematopoiesis is the process through which the body manufactures blood cells. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319544
What is this website anyway? Where you can buy Human umbilical cord blood cells for $659?
Red bone marrow consists of a delicate, highly vascular fibrous tissue containing hematopoietic stem cells. These are blood-forming stem cells.
Yellow bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells, or marrow stromal cells. These produce fat, cartilage, and bone.
Stem cells are immature cells that can turn into a number of different types of cells.
Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow give rise to two main types of cells: myeloid and lymphoid lineages. These include monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and megakaryocytes, or platelets, as well as T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.
The different types of hematopoietic stem cells vary in their regenerative capacity and potency. They can be multipotent, oligopotent, or unipotent, depending on how many types of cells they can create.
Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells have renewal and differentiation properties. They can reproduce another cell identical to themselves, and they can generate one or more subsets of more mature cells.
Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. In fact, most of the white blood cells that lead the immune system’s response are neutrophils. There are four other types of white blood cells. Neutrophils are the most plentiful type, making up 55 to 70 percent of your white blood cells. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are a key part of your immune system.
Your immune system is made up of tissues, organs, and cells. As part of this complex system, white blood cells patrol your bloodstream and lymphatic system.
When you’re sick or have a minor injury, substances that your body sees as foreign, known as antigens, call your immune system into action.
Examples of antigens include:
White blood cells produce chemicals that fight antigens by going to the source of the infection or inflammation.
Neutrophils are important because, unlike some of the other white blood cells, they aren’t limited to a specific area of circulation. They can move freely through the walls of veins and into the tissues of your body to immediately attack all antigens.
Is DNA present in blood cells? Blood is an excellent source of human DNA. DNA is present in white blood cells of humans, but not red blood cells which lack nuclei. A dime-sized spot of blood, approximately 50 µl in volume, is enough DNA for a typical VNTR analysis
Red blood cell production
Blood has been called the river of life, transporting various substances that must be carried to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which they carry to the lungs to be expelled. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow are called hemocytoblasts. They give rise to all of the formed elements in blood.
If a stem cell commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell.
The formation of a red blood cell takes about 2 days. The body makes about two million red blood cells every second!
Blood is made up of both cellular and liquid components. If a sample of blood is spun in a centrifuge, the formed elements and fluid matrix of blood can be separated from each other.
Blood consists of 45% red blood cells, less than 1% white blood cells and platelets, and 55% plasma.
Review Date 1/13/2020
Updated by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Why does every cell in our body contain DNA?
Category: Biology Published: August 22, 2013.
Not every cell in the human body contains DNA bundled in a cell nucleus. Specifically, mature red blood cells and cornified cells in the skin, hair, and nails contain no nucleus.
As part of the maturation process, human red blood cells destroy their cell nuclei. They do this in order to carry as much oxygen as possible and still stay small enough to fit through narrow blood capillaries, thereby maximizing the oxygen delivery. In fact, humans have some of the smallest red blood cells of all vertebrates, thanks in part to the destruction of the nucleus. Most mammals have red blood cells without nuclei, while all other types of vertebrates do have nuclei in their red blood cells. However, all red blood cells, including human, must start with DNA, as DNA contains the code that tells each cell how to construct itself in the first place. Human red blood cells simply destroy their nucleus once it is no longer needed as part of the maturation process. A ring of actin within a maturing red blood cell pinches and splits the cell into two parts: one part with the DNA and one part without. Red blood cell enucleation is therefore a special type of cell division. Macrophages then come along and gobble up the parts containing DNA, leaving only the red blood cell parts that don’t have DNA. Note that there is much more in blood than red blood cells. As a result, a blood sample does contain DNA due to the presence of other kinds of cells.
Cornified cells in the skin, hair, and nails also contain no cell nucleus. Like red blood cells, these cells start out with cell nuclei in order to develop properly, but then destroy their nuclei as part of the cornification process. They do this in order to maximize the space in the cell filled with the structural protein keratin. Keratin is a strong protein that gives hair, skin, finger nails, and toe nails their toughness. Cells that undergo cornification experience a form of programmed, controlled cell death in order to achieve their strength. The cell nucleus and other internal parts of the cell are destroyed and their space is filled by keratin. Once cornification is complete, these cells are dead and carry out no biochemical processes. But dead does not mean useless. Cornified cells fulfill their end purpose of giving structural strength and warmth to surrounding tissues despite being dead. The fact that cornified cells are dead means that you can cut your hair, clip your nails, and rub off the outer layer of skin without causing any damage or killing cells. The lack of nuclear DNA in cornified cells means that forensic biologists can rarely extract DNA from hair clippings in order to help determine the culprit.
Aside from red blood cells and cornified cells, all other cells in the human body contain nuclear DNA. Also, all cells start with nuclear DNA. The reason for this is that DNA contains the basic code that tells each cell how to grow, function, and reproduce.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) plays a vital role in translating the instructions in DNA into the proteins of life. If a gene is damaged it creates damaged mRNA, which goes on to create damaged proteins and, ultimately, disease.
One type of RNA therapy uses a particular type of RNA — silencing RNA — to bind with damaged mRNA, which prevents it from being made into protein.
Another approach is to deliver corrected mRNA into cells. By giving cells the right blueprint for creating healthy proteins, mRNA therapy can prevent or treat disease. This approach has been pioneered by Moderna Therapeutics, a company co-founded by an HSCI faculty member.